Egypt is a bridge between Northeast Africa and the Middle East and its history dates back to the time of the Pharaohs. Ancient monuments line the banks of the fertile Nile Valley, including the Sphinx and the colossal pyramids of Giza. The city of Luxor is home to the Temple of Karnak and its hieroglyphs, as well as the tombs in the Valley of the Kings.

General presentation

Official name: Arab Republic of Egypt

Type of government: Semi-presidential (constitution of January
18, 2014)
Area: 1,002,000 km2
Capital: Cairo (22 million inhabitants)
Main cities: Alexandria, Port Said, Asyut, Luxor, Aswan
Official language: Arabic

National holiday: 23 July (in commemoration of the Free Officers’
Revolution of 23 July 1952)

Population (2020): 102.3 M inhabitants
Density: 99 inhabitants/km2 (95% of Egypt’s surface is desert.
Density in the Nile Delta and Valley is estimated at 1,500 inhabitants/km2)
Population growth (2020): 2% per year
Literacy rate (2019): 80.8
Source: Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs

Economic situation

Egypt’s GDP, the second largest in Africa, was approximately $362 billion in 2019/20. It is the result of a diversified economy structured around manufacturing (16%), real estate and construction (17%), wholesale and retail trade (14%), agriculture, forestry & fisheries (11%) and mining (10%). The public sector is a major player in the economy, accounting for 31% of activity and 56% of investment (all public sectors combined). The Army is also an important economic player, including in the civilian sector. Moreover, the inclusion of the informal sector, which would account for 50 percent of total employment, would increase GDP by at least 40 percent. Egypt has traditionally benefited from the revenues of four rents: Diaspora remittances ($22bn/year on average since 2013/14), tourism (up to $12bn/year before the 2011 revolution, revenues fell to $3.8bn in 2015/16 and have since increased significantly to $12.6bn in 2018/19 before falling to $9.9bn last year due to the health crisis), Suez Canal user fees ($5.8bn in 2019/20). In addition, hydrocarbon sales ($11.6bn in 2018/19) and an energy balance that returned to surplus in 2018/19 (a symbolic $8m surplus) after five years of deficit, account for 41% of exports.
Source: Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs

Bilateral Relations

Bilateral investment treaties

Work in process

Double taxation agreements

Work in process

Free trade agreements

Work in process

Leading sector for Swiss companies

Work in process


201620172018 E2019 E
GDP (in billions of USD)332.48236.53249.47298.15
GDP per capita (USD)3684249525723005
Growth rate4.3%4.2%5.3%5.5%
Unemployment rate12.7%12.6%
Inflation rate10.2%23.5%20.9%14.%
Public debt (% of GDP)97.1%103.040%92.519%87.050%
Budget balance (% of GDP)-19.83%-14.92%-6.37%-7.29%
Current account balance (% of GDP)-6.0%-6.33%-2.6%-2.4%

(Sources FMI, Banque Mondiale)

Main customers

2018: Italy 7.0%, Turkey 6.9%, E-A-U 6.8%, US 5.9%, AS 4.9
Source Comtrade

Main suppliers

2018 : Chine 14,2%, A S 7,%, USA 6,7%, Russie 6,0,%, Allemagne 5,1%.
Source Comtrade

Swiss exports to

Work in process

Exports of …. to Switzerland

Work in process

Swiss direct investment in

Work in process

The business climate

Work in process